The Musical Maharshi from Amravati

One of Maharashtra's gravest tragedies is the perverted polarization that separates the unfairly privileged Western Maharashtra from the rest of the state. Consequently, many legends remain perennially unsung, whether during their lifetimes or even posthumously. One such luminary was singer-composer Pandit Manohar Kavishwar.

His Geet Govind was inspired by G. D. Madgulkar's Geet Ramayan, and although equally soulful and more profound, it was denied the place of pride that was given to Geet Ramayan on a platter. Not stopping at Geet Govind, Kavishwar composed Geet Gajanan, Geet Gautam, and Geet Chakradhar, and yet this humble school teacher from Amravati is not known to most Maharashtrians.   

Thanks to the divine voice of Sudhir Phadke, Kavishwar continues to mesmerize us every time Aakashwani airs his माना मानव वा परमेश्वर, मी स्वामी पतितांचा which articulates the essence and credence of Yogyogeshwar Bhagwan Srikrishna precisely and purposefully. His winsome involvement (which the world erroneously equates with indulgence) and wholesome detachment (which most misread as ruthlessness), his grand stature as the sole maverick among Gods, his absolute disdain for helpless cries and ostensible grieving, his heartfelt concern for the well being of his ardent devotees, and his earnest appeal to all Jeevas to defy all odds only to do what they ought to....this beautiful verse unfolds all in less than 100 words. And Phadke takes it to another level like only Phadke can. Note the dexterous harkat on the word Deveshwar (vintage Babuji) and the contrasting lows and highs in the stanza:

रुक्मिणी माझी सौंदर्याची प्रगटे जणू प्रतिमा
किंचित हट्टी परंतू लोभस असे सत्यभामा

तरीही वरितो सहस्त्र सोळा कन्या मी अमला
पराधीन ना समर्थ घेण्या वार कलंकाचा

Kavishwar's composition and Babuji's rendition are both celestial. Rarely do we find words and notes become one like they do here. Beyond doubt, Lord Krishna has blessed this Malhar composition with eternal life.

माना मानव वा परमेश्वर, मी स्वामी पतितांचा
भोगी म्हणुनी उपहासा, मी योगी कर्माचा
दैवजात दुःखाने मनुजा पराधीन केले
त्या पतितांचे केवळ रडणे मजला ना रुचले
भूषण रामा एकपत्नी व्रत, मला नको तसले
मोह न मजला कीर्तीचा, मी नाथ अनाथांचा
रुक्मिणी माझी सौंदर्याची प्रगटे जणू प्रतिमा
किंचित हट्टी परंतू लोभस असे सत्यभामा
तरीही वरितो सहस्त्र सोळा कन्या मी अमला
पराधीन ना समर्थ घेण्या वार कलंकाचा
कर्तव्याला मुकता माणूस, माणूस ना उरतो
हलाहलाते प्राशुन शंकर देवेश्वर ठरतो
जगता देण्या संजीवन मी कलंक हा धरितो
वत्सास्तव मम ऊर फुटावा वत्सल मातेचा

- पं. मनोहर कवीश्वर    

Baby, Viju and Vijaya Mehta

Notwithstanding its saccharine-smeared idiom and asymmetrical narration, 'Zhimma', the bulky memoir-cum-autobiography of 'Rangayan' founder Vijaya Mehta, is eminently readable, particularly the chapters on Othello in Marathi (Zunjarrao), Eugène Ionesco's Chairs (Khurchya) and Bertolt Brecht's Caucasian Chalk Circle (Ajab Nyay Vartulacha), fun-filled pre-Rangayan and Rangayan days, adaptations of Vijay Tendulkar, Mahesh Elkunchwar and Jaywant Dalvi, 'Mudrarakshas' with a German cast, and of course Peter Brook's Mahabharata.

Beyond doubt, Mehta is as relevant to theatre today as she was back then. Rangayan's green house, almost singlehandedly steered by Mehta, was pioneering in every respect. Its laboratory approach to theatre, global strides and cultural amalgamation, offbeat experiments with different art forms, unconditional readiness to learn from the masters, purposeful innovation, and thoughtful adaptations of literary works are timeless case studies. Above all, Rangayan sought to help its actors learn to play and grow with (and detach from) their characters, rather than relish low-hanging fruits or settle for cheaper bargains. For those who have studied Peter Brook would be overjoyed to find a genuine admirer in Mehta, who practiced Brook in the living waters of her theatre voyage. 

Mehta is indeed a rare breed. She is quick to acknowledge her debt to her mentors, both real and virtual, and she steers clear of playing the woman card unlike many crusaders of her stature from other walks. As a one-of-a-kind catalyst and master orchestrator, she has traversed disparate worlds of diverse individuals across different eras, all mavericks in their own right, whether administrators, actors, dramatists, film makers, folk artistes, directors, poets, painters, publishers, writers, thinkers, set designers, dance directors or music directors. Given her stoic calm and unflinching sense of purpose amid the highs and lows in personal life, she is a towering inspiration across generations. Luck and serendipity may have played a key role in her life -  privileged Mumbai upbringing, financial prosperity, upmarket lifestyle, and a plugged-in network of happening people across the globe - yet she is incontrovertibly self-made. Her progression from an actress of earthy talent to a visionary theatre director is astounding, to say the least.     

In her book, the thespian vividly describes umpteen characters that she brought to life on stage and screen. All the same, you are instinctively drawn to a few real-life characters: Mehta's mother Baiji; Harin khote, Mehta's first husband; Parsi theatre veteran Adi Marzban; and German theatre director Fritz Benewitz among others. Mehta has more than adequately described the significance of both theatre pioneers in her life, and we come to know the immensely likeable Baiji from close quarters.

But we are left yearning to know more about Harin, particularly his academic and professional triumphs, religious bent of mind, and offbeat ways. We can understand Mehta chose to keep mum on the Harin we know from her mom-in-law Durga Khote's self-indulgent autobiography, but we certainly would have liked to know a little more about his German stint, his tryst with Tatas, and the final career switch, as also his hobbies, pastimes and aspirations. For someone whose short life was tragic in many ways, he deserved a longer tribute.

On the face of it, Mehta appears to probe deeper into the existential question 'Why Rangayan folded up?' but knowingly or unknowingly, she seems all too keen to provide definitive answers. That she calls Rangayan her 'gang' invites the risk of being called a ganglord, it also makes one wonder whether there was any thought spared for succession planning during Rangayan's prime time. Why didn't a troupe brimming with radical ideas feel the need to check the conviction of the collective at some point, and across different levels, core and peripheral. Who knows, a detached probe could have paved the way for a purposeful interaction between the conformists and the non-conformists, besides exposing the pretenders and the pseudos. Given a delightfully freewheeling group like Rangayan, it's but obvious that a few co-travelers would have pledged allegiance out of mindless devotion and mechanical resolve or even guided by ulterior motives. The imposters often damage the core fabric in unimaginable ways.

No wonder, we find many ex-Rangayan comrades defying the very principles Rangayan sought to teach them. Merely idolizing Mehta through the honorific 'Bai' has done little to help their cause as most of them are unabashedly loud and unreal in their stage and screen performances. In stark contrast, many mainstream stars like Ranveer Singh and excellent actors like Vijay Raaz and Vijay Verma do a terrific job without any claim to that effect. At the start of her career, Mehta fathomed the depth of the Stanislavsky quote "Love the art in you, not yourself in the art" from her mentor of formative years P. D. Shenoy. Most of her protégés have done the exact opposite. That is the real tragedy of Rangayan, not its terminal full stop.           

Dr. Shreeram Lagoo gets only a passing mention in the book; Mehta's admiration for the legendary thespian is rather chary, much like how Lata Mangeshkar lauds Bhimsen Joshi, in as few words as possible. The sweet-sour reminiscences of P L Deshpande are accompanied by subtle allegations that one feels should have come with commensurate substantiation. Her stint at the decidedly elitist NCPA is almost dutifully glorified, with a statutory submission that the responsibility was assumed only to give back to society. The chapters on her tryst with TV and cinema seem rather hurried, largely stating the obvious in describing the 'new' experiences.That Mehta never felt the need to distinguish between Satyajit Ray and Shyam Benegal is baffling, given her penchant for true-to-life representations. Watching her identically sedate portrayals in Nihalani's over-hyped 'Party' and Benegal's adequately bearable 'Kalyug', it's apparent that something substantial was lost in the transition. In 'Party', while Manohar Singh struggles to play the pseudo, English-speaking playwright (when he says 'you are depressed', he stresses only the word 'are' like it alone conveyed some profound meaning), Mehta appears hopelessly rehearsed in her Anglicized utterances: 'Don't be rude, Vrinda' or 'I am not feeling well, Barve' et al. If possible, she should look beyond her Best Actress Award (1985 Asia-Pacific Film Festival) to study the nuanced performances of four co-artistes: Amrish Puri, Om Puri, Pearl Padamsee and Naseer (who underlines the connect between his opening rendition and the fag-end horrific guest appearance, in a 'fit for purpose' manner that only Naseer can, way better than what the makers would have imagined)

Coming back to Zhimma, Mehta's third-person 'look back' at Baby and Viju, as she was known to her family then, does not make room for the expected detachment as the narration is largely befitting a family photo album. Nevertheless, the graphic account of her childhood years is evocative and engaging. The passages devoted to her dad's Bhiwandi home and its inhabitants are positively intriguing.Thanks to her succinct character sketches, many haunting frames come alive, depicting the lives and times of Raosahebkaka, Kamalakaki, Bappai, and Shanti.

Given her generous use of the phrase "Arthat he maaze mat" (This of course is my opinion), you wonder if that could have been an apt title for the book. What's undoubtedly a priceless manual for theatre practitioners has had to share space with Baby's 'Zhimma Fugdi', given the excessively florid prose of the initial chapters, as also Subhash Avchat's overawing cover design. That however doesn't take away much from the book's readability.   

Vile Parle: Tracing the Bygone in the Bylanes

Some leisure work took me to Vile Parle the other day. Parle, as it is known to most, is one of Mumbai's neatest suburbs. Having spent two and a half years of my life here, I was overwhelmed by a queer feeling while treading the legendary pathways of the idyllic East side: Nehru road, Mahant road, Dixit road, Hanuman road, Subhash road, Prathana Samaj road and the like.
Of course, I lingered longer on Dixit road extension for obvious reasons - here stands the building called 'Kanchanban' that was once our residence, and in close vicinity is my Alma mater: the M L Dahanukar College.

As I walked around, I could not help sense a pervading pall of gloom all around. I first thought it was the shabby, sorry condition of the roads that made me despondent. Dug out beyond recognition to make room for the 'Metro' progression, they left little room for moving about and visiting cherished landmarks including Parleshwar Temple, Chimanaram, Utkarsh mandal, Mahila Sangh school, Anand Book Centre, Atul Ayurvedic, Phadke Udyog mandir, Prabhukrupa, Bharat Hindu Hotel, Adar Refreshments, Apsara Stores, Tashkent Emporium, Vijay Stores, Shivsagar, Jawahar Book Depot, Parle Book Depot, K K Punjab, Murugan Stores, Saurashtra Farsan, and Champion Stores. But no, the road block was not the reason for the mind block.

The pervading gloom was more in my head then in sight: my beloved parents, with whom I frequented most of these landmarks, were no longer with me. How could the walk be devoid of the sweet and sour reminiscences of a bygone era? I was even more befuddled when I learnt of the eerie happenings at 'Kanchanban' from a kind aunt of the adjacent building 'Laxmi Niwas'. She spent a good half an hour narrating the disastrous events that happened in quick succession following our exit from Vile Parle.

But what left me shattered was the sad news of my childhood friend who went missing one ill-fated day, and has never returned since. I had spent priceless moments with him and it was simply impossible to detach myself from his tragedy.

Without Unmesh Hasabnis, Vile Parle hardly means anything to me. I miss him like I miss my parents. I can never say Let bygones be bygones. I would rather wish Let the bylanes bring back the bygones.

A Barrister's tribute to the Doctor

Vikram Gokhle, now a septuagenarian, is inimitably brimming with earthy enthusiasm. His eyes light up at the mere mention of Dr. Shreeram Lagoo. It's hardly a surprise that his tribute to the legendary thespian rings truer than the deep-frozen gratitude offered by most of his contemporaries. I drove down to Mumbai for a delightful tete-a-tete with the veteran actor in the bustling living room of his Vile Parle residence.

Gokhle recalls a felicitation event in Pune where he spoke extempore about Dr. Lagoo's contribution to theatre and films, going against the diktat of answering pre-decided questions posed by celebrity anchor Sudhir Gadgil. Impressed with Gokhle's succinct observations on his performances, Dr. Lagoo remarked: "It's rarely that we see an actor closely analyzing the work of another actor. I am happy to be in the company of such thinking individuals." Later, Gokhle told the thespian that he had been a keen student of Lagoo's body of work right from Gokhle's college days. What followed was a deep bond between the two that lasted till the very end. 

Gokhle has another fond memory: "During our overseas tours organized by Suyog's Sudhir Bhat, Dr. Lagoo would invariably say: Sudhir, any flight, any seat would do, just see to it that my co-passenger is Vikram. We utilized these travel times to discuss theatre and films, as also to analyze the work of other artistes. I invariably gathered rich insights from every interaction with him."                 

Gokhle was particularly floored by Dr. Lagoo's sense of discipline, "Not many know that the Doctor diligently worked on his voice to override the minuses (his voice cracked the moment he raised his voice) and enhance the plusses. Being a qualified ENT surgeon, the science was already known to him, but he even mastered the art over time to identify the right pitch which is now synonymous with his name and what people erroneously believe to be a God gift."     

Of course, not every conversation with the thespian was about serious issues. "We had our lighter moments, and lots of them", Gokhle chuckles. "Once when I gifted him a book, he grimaced with a playful retort, "Oh! Not a book again, I thought you would bring me a 'bottle' this time round, I could do with a few hearty drinks than pore over fat books of fine print."

One of Gokhle's biggest regrets is of having missed the opportunity of sharing stage space with Dr. Lagoo. "I was Lagoo's co-artiste in few films, but theatre has its own charm, especially when you have Dr. Lagoo  
by your side."

Gokhle feels the theatre and film fraternity should observe a few minutes of introspective silence in Dr. Lagoo's memory rather than offering perfunctory tributes. "Actually, we must build a theatre auditorium in his name, where deserving aspirants can rehearse and stage their performances. Given Dr. Lagoo's temperament, he would have been the happiest to lend his name to a larger cause, befitting his stature as one of India's finest actors."       

We hope and pray Gokhle garners the support of like-minded individuals and institutions to make his dream come true. We also hope he himself resolves to make better use of his deep, penetrative eyes, winning smile, and magnificent stage and screen presence to portray powerful characters of enduring significance.

Given the legacy he carries - of his illustrious grandmother and father - and given his formative schooling at Rangayan, he is undoubtedly capable of bigger and better performances, like his unforgettable 'barrister' who has been immortalized by Jayawant Dalvi's potent prose and Vijaya Mehta's deft direction. As for his Rangayan contemporaries, both celebrities and commoners, they must get back to school to gainfully study Dr. Lagoo's gem of a book 'Vachik Abhinay' cover to cover, if not Peter Brook's 'Empty space'. The effort will pay rich dividends for sure.    

The Natsamrat of Socratic Sensibility

Dr. Shreeram Lagoo is invariably worshipped as the King Lear-like Appasaheb Belvalkar in V V Shirwadkar's epic Natsamrat. But Makarand Sathe's highly incisive Surya Pahilela Manus, Lagoo's farewell performance, must be rated as one of his very best, in the league of his memorable roles including Antigone, Atmakatha, Udhwast Dharmashala, Maadi, and Gidhade among others. Defying age and ailment, Lagoo singlehandedly steered this play to fruition, partially helped by Sathe's pithy prose and Atul Pethe's purposeful direction, which lend the play a robust structure of distinct, defining episodes that make sense, both chronologically and metaphorically.  

The Trial of Socrates raises several questions rooted in intrigue and wonderment. To this day, historians and other experts have not been able to separate fact from fiction. That both Plato and Xenophon have been accused of being selective about their respective reportage make matters even more complex.

As Gabriel Danzig of the Bar Ilan University aptly observes, "The accounts of Socrates' behavior in court given by both Plato and Xenophon stem from the need these authors felt to respond, in different ways, to the post-trial debate about Socrates." Much before Plato and Xenophon, reportedly in 423 BC, Aristophanes sketched Socrates as a disdainful preacher in The Clouds, who swears by his own deities and invariably promotes antagonistic ideas. How much of this comedy influenced the trial, if it did in the first place, is still being furiously debated in certain circles.
It is best to sideline, if not ignore, the debatable aspects of the chronicles and focus on some tightly coupled truths, for the universality and sheer relevance of Socratic thought more than condone the historical obscurities surrounding the man, the Athens of his times, and his trial, however knotted they may be.

Socrates should always be remembered for the timelessness of the situation that led him to claim his life before his adversaries could. To this day, we see poets, politicians and public speakers forming unholy alliances worldwide, collaborations rooted in tyranny and thriving on censorship. When the people in power assume the right to define piety and impiety in overtly blasphemous ways, even a semblance of argument is labelled antagonistic, best nipped in the bud.

Similarly, Plato's Republic, which endorses the ideal state based on the Socratic vision, is equally relevant to us, especially the allegory of the cave and the analogy of the sun which probe deep into the nature of perception and the purpose of education. 

Makarand Sathe weaves a beautiful tapestry of Greek thought in Surya Pahilela Manus that begins with three people engaged in a heated conversation which appears trivial on the face of it, but as we proceed, we gauge the rich symbolism underlying the banter: the sheer diversity of our dispositions and the corresponding positions. They pave the way for the inspirational tale of Socrates, featuring the last phase of his life, but only after an elaborate recreation of the cave allegory. Sathe is unflinchingly focused on Socrates's heartfelt, cogent plea in the course of the trial and his towering stoicism amid helpless followers watching him willingly succumb to the diktats of the hemlock cup.    

The play is mesmerizing, to say the least, thanks only to the dynamic duo of Dr. Lagoo and Makarand Sathe. I would prefer Surya Pahilela Manus to Natsamrat any day, given the way this pair has recreated Athens, the way Sathe has penned the lines, and the way Lagoo delivers them.

Critics often cite a 25-minute soliloquy as the crowning glory of Lagoo's enactment, but it's his endearing conversational tone, the play's hallmark, that strikes immediate resonance with the audience, making the uninitiated wonder if Athens was some forgotten city in Maharashtra, maybe in Samyukta Maharashtra. 

 "Crito, kat manje kay he na kalnyaitka me murkha naahi" (Crito, I may be naive but I know what a conspiracy is)

"Me shahana aahe to asa aani yevdhach" (I am intelligent within the framework of this context and only to this extent)

"Crito, raajkaranachya baher asana manje rajnakaran na kalana navhe"(Crito, one need not be in polity to fathom it)

What effortless acting! Every gesture of this great actor reflects his delight of playing a dream role, precisely why the constant tremor, periodic slur, and occasional lapse hardly bother him. I consider myself lucky to have witnessed him in action; the You Tube video may be dated, but it will never turn stale. It is undoubtedly the best tribute to the man and his times.

That Dr. Lagoo got this opportunity at the fag end of his career is reflective of:

1. The extreme poverty of the mainstream tribe in making Lagoo repeatedly do what came to be unfairly known as Lagoopanaa (Lagooness), although the Hindi film industry deserves accolades for paying the thespian well. (Watching Lagoo as the singer-beggar in Gulzar's 'kitaab', or as the low-caste worker in a Rajesh Khanna horror called 'Sautan' was extremely painful, though one can always enjoy a hearty laugh watching a fair-skinned chitpavan Brahmin posed with the challenge of rendering the impossible with laughable makeup)

2. The jaundiced abundance of the glorified 'offbeat' tribe which only claims authority and necessarily shuns introspection. Narcissistic makers and adopted journalists together stage an intimate theatre based on mutual admiration; captive boutiques guarantee generous critiques, prescribing plays and films as "must see" after formulaic reviews of extolling pros (gripping drama, nimble writing, supernaturally charming, scathing probe, surreal experience) and ornamental cons (the second half is somewhat wobbly, the accent lighting is rather weak). For this tribe, a Vishal Bharadwaj falling back on Shakespeare would still amount to breaking news, and his punctured adaptations would still be hailed as masterpieces. The mere announcement of any Shakespeare adaptation is greeted with a loud cheer, unless of course the makers are either confirmed non-entities, or the professional applauders bear a personal grudge against them.

3. The faint hope that Sathe and his committed troupe keep aflame against all odds, both thrust on them and home-spun.
Barring few instances, all bit players of Surya Pahilela Manus deliver rehearsed performances, in the way they stand, talk, move about, or express their angst. Yes, this is a universal issue plaguing our theatre which invariably mars the collective fruition of any play. But the damage is devastating in the case of plays of this genre and quality. The playwright's, and the protagonist's, effort deserved a better outcome.Thankfully, the set design, costumes, and makeup help build a believable Athens, and the haunting background score is fit for purpose.   

The support cast could yet derive some inspiration from Dr. Lagoo's enactment to bear the weight of deep, profound dialogues in future plays of this genre. They should closely observe Dr Lagoo: how he instinctively folds his sleeves, adjusts his shawl or presses palms together while delivering loaded lines. The day they realize what appears instinctive was only a conscious effort, they'll get it. So would we!         

Surya Dakhavnaraa Manus (The Man who showed us the Sun)

Makarand Sathe, writer of Surya Pahilela Manus (SPM)

Architect and playwright, Makarand Sathe has undoubtedly made absurdist theatre more actionable if not always agreeable; you may reject his metaphors, you may challenge his notions, but deep within, you will be compelled to ask terrifying questions before seeking liberating answers. An exasperated few may even ask “Sathe cha kay karayacha” but I am sure he will go on (To Pudhe Jaail), which is how it should be, for this continuum ensures the progression of Marathi theatre and even minds: both mainstream and experimental.     

He was kind enough to answer some of my questions on SPM on priority even though he is currently traveling. Thank you Makarand!

1. How did the idea of SPM evolve? How did you approach the difference between Plato's and Xenophon's accounts or the diversity of opinion on Socrates (some find him anti-democratic)? 

I was not interested in Socrates per se. I was interested in some of his thoughts which I thought were valid in contemporary Indian reality then. Unfortunately, they are as valid, or even more valid today. I also saw a connect with Gandhian thought somewhere. So, who among Plato or Xenophon is more valid is immaterial. Though, I would go with Plato as I agree with Russell on that count. Also, debates about Socrates being against democracy are only partially valid as democracy is Athens was a joke anyway, what with poor people, slaves, and women deprived of voting rights. 

2. Was Dr. Lagoo your predetermined choice to play Socrates? 

Yes, Dr Lagoo was indeed my first and only choice. In fact, he was the one who induced the play's making. He wanted the play to move on biographical lines, but I made it political and philosophical. He had doubts if my version would work at all. 

3. How long did you take to write the play? Did you write at one go?

I took about 24 hours to make the first draft. I had done all the reading earlier as part of my normal reading process, not specifically for the play. Of course, there were several subsequent drafts with additions and modifications - till the play was actually staged. 

4. Could you share few details of the making of the play? 

I was part of the staging process. It was a rather straight forward affair. I would have liked more intellectual investment from all stakeholders.